New Wind Farm Causing Problems for Doppler Radar

Wind turbines along the Buffalo Ridge in rural southwest Minnesota (2004)
Wind turbines along the Buffalo Ridge in rural southwest Minnesota (2004)

A relatively new wind energy farm in central Wisconsin has created a newly-discovered, puzzling side effect:  interference with the local National Weather Service doppler radar.

The Butler Ridge wind farm was constructed in February of this year and contains a total of 36 wind turbines, each standing about 300 feet above ground level.  These windmills were build on a ridge line that is about 1100 feet above sea level, placing the turbines in an optimal location to benefit from the highest wind speeds in the region.  Coincidentally, the location is in the sight of the local doppler radar tower in Sullivan, WI that is approximately 30 miles south of the wind farm.

This image from April 1, 2009 displays the location and reflecdtivity of the wind farm 30 miles north of the radar site.  Credit:  NOAA
This image from April 1, 2009 displays the location and reflecdtivity of the wind farm 30 miles north of the radar site. Credit: NOAA

Doppler radar functions to detect atmospheric phenomena by sending out an electromagnetic signal and simultaneously “listening” for the signal to return if it is bounced off of an object.  Many objects will reflect the radar beam, most notably rain droplets, ice crystals, and snowflakes.  But as we reported earlier this year, doppler radar can also detect bats, birds, aircraft, surface traffic, and even tragedies like 9/11 and the Columbia disaster.  They are even believed to have the potential to alter the weather.

In the case of the Butler Ridge wind farm, the radar beam is being reflected by the large blades on the spinning turbines.  This electromagnetic energy is then reflected back to the radar dome and the radar detects the object.  The turbine blades then appear on the radar image.  This seemingly innocuous interference could have significant ramifications in the upcoming severe weather season though.

This image from the National Weather Service demonstrates how wind turbines can be mistaken for storms on doppler radar.  Credit:  NOAA
This image from the National Weather Service demonstrates how wind turbines can be mistaken for storms on doppler radar. Credit: NOAA

Doppler radar is arguably one of the most critical tools at the disposal of the National Weather Service when they look to provide timely watches and warnings of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes.  By examining the output of doppler radars, meteorologists are able to detect and forecast thunderstorms that may become severe and where they may track.  But if the radar image is masked by interference such as the wind turbines, it is feared that severe weather watches and warnings may be less robust.

The National Weather Service Radar Operations Center has enlisted the help of the wind energy industry to try to alleviate these problems in the future by locating the wind farms in places that would not interfere with such radar signals.  They have published an extensive analysis of the problem.  The map below displays the locations (in red) of the doppler radar sites that may be impacted.  The yellow regions are those in which the radar beam travels close enough to the ground that it could be impacted by windmills constructed in those regions.

This map displays the locations of all National Weather Service radar locations (red) and the regions in which the radar beam is low enough to the ground that it may be impacted by windmills (yellow).
This map displays the locations of all National Weather Service radar locations (red) and the regions in which the radar beam is low enough to the ground that it may be impacted by windmills (yellow). Credit: NOAA

Meteorologists may be able to write software code that is able to filter out this interference, but such work can be costly and time-consuming.  The primary concern is that filtering the data to remove such interference may also increase the risk of filtering out true radar echoes – those of actual storms that must be detected for public safety.

With the mushrooming popularity of wind energy around the country, this problem is one that is sure to warrant further study and creative mitigation attempts.


  1. If they can block out buildings on radars why can they block out these? all they have to do is set it to register where they are located and not read them.

  2. So you think it is OK Amanda, to put lives at risk by “turning off” radar areas. Do you think of the medical flight teams that depend on radars for fixed wing, and radar as reported for helicopter flights? Turbines move, buildings do not. They have to continue to monitor these areas/radar to keep the people safe and to give flights in the area the correct information.

  3. Amanda is correct, the radar signature of a fixed object, once input, can be blocked AND still read surrounding prevailing conditions.

    Fear mongering on the part of WINGS sounds like something from the Bush era.

  4. Why have this argument? The wind turbines do not work without wind. What are we supposed to do, fire up the coal/gas burner or nuke when the wind stops? You could cover every possible site in the State of Wisconsin with a turbine and it would be like pissing in the Mississippi river. We need to develop clean burn technology and nuclear power and forget this nonsense.

  5. The radar operators make a big fool of themselves.
    Radar images are processed in computers very heavily.
    Every single radar has a problem area, the center of the image, where the radar is. This shows in the black image at the bottom.
    The reflections from that area come in to quick to be usable for the radarsystem
    Smart radar operators use the image from other nearby radars to patch the hole with a piece from that other radar.
    They do this already and should also apply this technique to new problem area’s.

    The marine have this system on line for several years already, to make their ships radar system more robust, and have them operate as a team in the fleet.

  6. This is more a national security issue. Windmills ability to make large amounts of land unreadable is perfect information for terrorists to lead a strike from.

  7. one wind mill is not the problem, and you cannot simply block it out, the blade tips travel at over 180 mile per hour, dozens of windmills overcome the processing of radars and it blocks everything going less than 180 miles per hour in a big shadow zone behind the windmill. They also put out a lot of electromagnetic noise that raises the noise floor in general reducing the overall sensitivity of radars that are close by(this would only occur within a mile or so of the radar. )

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